Matteo Mattei

Hello, my name is Matteo Mattei and this is my personal website. I am computer engineer with a long experience in Linux system administration and web software development.

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Full web server setup with Debian 8 (Jessie)

Setup bash and update the system

cp /etc/skel/.bashrc /root/.bashrc
apt-get update
apt-get dist-upgrade

Configure hostname correctly

Make sure to have the following two lines (with the same format) at the top of your /etc/hosts file

127.0.0.1       localhost.localdomain localhost
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx web1.myserver.com web1

Note: xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx is the public IP address assigned to your server.

Install all needed packages

apt-get install php5 mysql-server mysql-client apache2 iptables phpmyadmin varnish shorewall vsftpd php5-cli php5-curl php5-dev php5-gd php5-imagick php5-imap php5-memcache php5-pspell php5-recode php5-sqlite php5-tidy php5-xcache php5-xmlrpc php-pear php-xml-rpc postfix apg ca-certificates heirloom-mailx

MySQL/PhpMyAdmin:

Postfix:

Setup FTP

Stop VSFTP server:

/etc/init.d/vsftpd stop

Create backup configuration:

mv /etc/vsftpd.conf /etc/vsftpd.conf.backup

Add new configuration:

listen=YES
listen_port=21
anonymous_enable=NO
local_enable=YES
guest_enable=YES
guest_username=nobody
user_sub_token=$USER
local_root=/var/www/vhosts/$USER
virtual_use_local_privs=YES
user_config_dir=/etc/vsftpd/users
pam_service_name=vsftpd_local_and_virtual
chroot_local_user=YES
chroot_list_enable=YES
chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd/chroot_list
ftpd_banner=Welcome to my ftp server
write_enable=YES
download_enable=YES
dirlist_enable=YES
local_umask=022
dirmessage_enable=YES
xferlog_enable=YES
xferlog_file=/var/log/xferlog
connect_from_port_20=YES
connect_timeout=60
data_connection_timeout=300
idle_session_timeout=300
local_max_rate=0
max_clients=0
max_per_ip=3

Create an empty chroot_list file:

mkdir /etc/vsftpd
touch /etc/vsftpd/chroot_list

Start VSFTP server:

/etc/init.d/vsftpd start

Setup Apache

Stop Apache web server:

/etc/init.d/apache2 stop

Backup Apache configuration:

cp /etc/apache2/apache2.conf /etc/apache2/apache2.conf.backup

Edit the following lines in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf

Edit /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/mpm_prefork.conf:

<IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
        StartServers             5
        MinSpareServers          5
        MaxSpareServers          10
        MaxRequestWorkers        150
        MaxConnectionsPerChild   10000
</IfModule>

Edit /etc/apache2/ports.conf and change the port 80 with 8080 since we are going to use Varnish:

Listen 8080

Change the port (from 80 to 8080) also in the default virtual host /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf Now restart Apache:

/etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Setup Varnish

Stop Varnish daemon:

/etc/init.d/varnish stop

Open /etc/varnish/default.vcl and make sure the backend section is like this:

backend default {
    .host = "127.0.0.1";
    .port = "8080";
    .connect_timeout = 600s;
    .first_byte_timeout = 600s;
    .between_bytes_timeout = 600s;
}

Now edit /etc/default/varnish and set the DAEMON_OPTS variable like this:

DAEMON_OPTS="-a :80 \
             -T localhost:6082 \
             -f /etc/varnish/default.vcl \
             -S /etc/varnish/secret \
             -s malloc,256m"

Now we have to make some changes also to systemd scripts (this step is mandatory for Debian Jessie!) since systemd does not consider /etc/default/varnish settings:

cp /lib/systemd/system/varnish.service /etc/systemd/system/

Edit /etc/systemd/system/varnish.service and change port 6081 with port 80:

[Unit]
Description=Varnish HTTP accelerator

[Service]
Type=forking
LimitNOFILE=131072
LimitMEMLOCK=82000
ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/varnishd -C -f /etc/varnish/default.vcl
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/varnishd -a :80 -T localhost:6082 -f /etc/varnish/default.vcl -S /etc/varnish/secret -s malloc,256m
ExecReload=/usr/share/varnish/reload-vcl

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

Restart Varnish:

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl restart varnish.service

Setup MySQL

Correct the MySQL configuration warning:

sed -i "{s/^key_buffer/key_buffer_size/g}" /etc/mysql/my.cnf

Enable MySQL slow query logging (often useful during slow page load debugging):

sed -i "{s/^#slow_query_log_file /slow_query_log_file /g}" /etc/mysql/my.cnf
sed -i "{s/^#slow_query_log /slow_query_log /g}" /etc/mysql/my.cnf
sed -i "{s/^#long_query_time /long_query_time /g}" /etc/mysql/my.cnf
sed -i "{s/^#log_queries_not_using_indexes/log_queries_not_using_indexes/g}" /etc/mysql/my.cnf

MySQL is now configured, so restart it:

/etc/init.d/mysql restart

Configure Shorewall firewall rules

Copy the default configuration for one interface:

cd /usr/share/doc/shorewall/examples/one-interface
cp interfaces /etc/shorewall/
cp policy /etc/shorewall/
cp rules /etc/shorewall/
cp zones /etc/shorewall/

Now open /etc/shorewall/policy file and change the line:

net             all             DROP            info

removing info directive given it fills the system logs:

net             all             DROP

Now open /etc/shorewall/rules and add the following rules at the bottom of the file:

HTTP/ACCEPT     net             $FW
SSH/ACCEPT      net             $FW
FTP/ACCEPT      net             $FW

# real apache since varnish listens on port 80
#ACCEPT         net             $FW             tcp             8080

NOTE: in case you want to allow ICMP (Ping) traffic from a specific remote hosts you need to add a rule similar to the following where xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx is the remote IP address, before the Ping(DROP) rule:

Ping(ACCEPT)    net:xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx       $FW

Now edit /etc/default/shorewall and change startup=0 to startup=1 You are now ready to start the firewall:

/etc/init.d/shorewall start

Setup Postfix

Stop postfix server:

/etc/init.d/postfix stop

Edit /etc/mailname and set your server domain name, for example:

server1.mycompany.com

Then, in order to monitor mail traffic coming from PHP you need to edit /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini. Go to [mail function] section and set the following two options:

sendmail_path = /usr/local/bin/sendmail-wrapper
auto_prepend_file = /usr/local/bin/env.php

Now create the two files above in /usr/local/bin:

sendmail-wrapper:

#!/bin/sh
logger -p mail.info sendmail-wrapper.sh: site=${HTTP_HOST}, client=${REMOTE_ADDR}, script=${SCRIPT_NAME}, pwd=${PWD}, uid=${UID}, user=$(whoami)
/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i $*

env.php:

<?php
putenv("HTTP_HOST=".@$_SERVER["HTTP_HOST"]);
putenv("SCRIPT_NAME=".@$_SERVER["SCRIPT_NAME"]);
putenv("SCRIPT_FILENAME=".@$_SERVER["SCRIPT_FILENAME"]);
putenv("DOCUMENT_ROOT=".@$_SERVER["DOCUMENT_ROOT"]);
putenv("REMOTE_ADDR=".@$_SERVER["REMOTE_ADDR"]);
?>

Now make they both have executable flag:

chmod +x /usr/local/bin/sendmail-wrapper
chmod +x /usr/local/bin/env.php

Add also /usr/local/bin/ to the open_basedir php list in /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/phpmyadmin.conf

php_admin_value open_basedir /usr/share/phpmyadmin/:/etc/phpmyadmin/:/var/lib/phpmyadmin/:/usr/local/bin/

Restart Postfix:

/etc/init.d/postfix start

Prepare environment

Create all needed directories and files

mkdir /root/cron_scripts
mkdir -p /var/www/vhosts
mkdir -p /etc/vsftpd/users
touch /etc/vsftpd/passwd

Now download all tools to manage the server locally:

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/ADD_ALIAS.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/ADD_DOMAIN.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/ADD_FTP_VIRTUAL_USER.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/ALIAS_LIST.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/DEL_ALIAS.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/DEL_DOMAIN.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/DEL_FTP_VIRTUAL_USER.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/DOMAIN_LIST.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/MYSQL_CREATE.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/UPDATE_ALL_FTP_PASSWORD.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/UPDATE_FTP_PASSWORD.sh
chmod 770 *.sh

Download also the tools that will be used with cron:

cd /root/cron_scripts
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/cron_scripts/backup_mysql.sh
wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/matteomattei/servermaintenance/master/Debian7/LAMP_24/cron_scripts/mysql_optimize.sh
chmod 770 *.sh

Configure CRON

Edit /etc/crontab and add the following lines at the bottom:

# mysql optimize tables
3  4  *  *  7   root    /root/mysql_optimize.sh

# mysql backup
32 4  *  *  *   root    /root/backup_mysql.sh

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